Chronic Kidney Disease- causes, symptoms, investigations & treatment

Following questions about chronic kidney disease always come in mind :


1.What is kidney and its function?

2. What are the types of kidney disorders?

3. What is chronic kidney disease (CKD)?

4. What are the causes of CKD ?

5. How can we prevent CKD ?

6. What are the symptoms of CKD ?

7. What are the stages of CKD ?

8. What investigation we need to diagnose CKD ?

9. What is the treatment of CKD ?


1. What is kidney and its function ?

Kidney is an excretory organ in our body.  There are two Kidneys present in our body. They  are situated in lower abdomen (retroperitoneal space). Its functions to excrete waste material or toxic products  like urea, creatinine, extra fluid etc from our body. You can understand by an example, these act like a water filter (RO).  Kidney also regulate blood pressure in our body. It also secretes erythropoietin which helps to produce blood that's why in CKD anaemia occurs. It also helps to produce Vitamin D.


2. What are the types of kidney disorders?

Acute-  When there is kidney injury and deranged function of kidney for less than 3 months of duration.

Chronic-   Chronic kidney disease defined as deranged kidney function for more than 3 months of duration .


3. Causes of renal failure

  1. Diabetes mellitus
  2. Hypertension
  3. NSAIDs-   excessive use of painkillers
  4. Alternative medicines like some Ayurvedic medicine which contains heavy amount of lead and some Unani medicines.
  5. Sometimes renal stonecan cause chronic kidney disorder  after obstructive uropathy.
  6. Unknown reasons


4. What are the symptoms of chronic kidney disease ? (kidney failure symptoms)

1. Weakness

2.  Swelling  over face and foot

3.  Decreased urine output and increased frequency of urine.

4. Dyspnea on exertion-  means breathlessness occurs when patient walks.

5.  Loss of appetite

6. Nausea and vomiting

7.  Itching all over body

8.  Paleness-  anaemia


5. What are the stages of CKD ?

Stage 1

Stage 2

Stage 3

Stage 4

Stage 5 or ESRD


6. Investigations



urine routine microscopy and examination


peripheral blood smear

iron studies

ultrasound KUB


7.What is the treatment of chronic kidney disease  ?

Medical treatment


Renal transplant


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