Diabetes Mellitus- symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and complications

Diabetes Mellitus is the biggest healthcare problem of the world. It can be the seed for many medical illnesses. If you are aware of diabetes, only then you can avoid deadly complications of diabetes mellitus. Today, we are going to discuss.

1. What is  Diabetes mellitus?

Diabetes mellitus is a  metabolic disorder in which blood sugar level remains high in blood system chronically. Either by the absence of insulin or insufficiency of insulin.

2. What are the symptoms of diabetes?

  1. Asymptomatic-  most of the people cannot recognise symptoms of diabetes or there are no symptoms. These people diagnosed surprisingly when they went to a doctor for some other cause.
  2. Polydipsia (intense thirst)- increased thirst of water.  patient will drink more and more water and he will drink water even more frequently.
  3. Polyurea (frequent urination)- in this patient passes urine more frequently as compared to earlier.
  4. Polyphagia (Increase hunger)-  patient feel more hunger.
  5. Weight gain or loss
  6. Fatigue
  7. Numbness and tingling in hands and feet.
  8. Sexual dysfunctions in male
  9. Delayed healing
  10. Increase the rate of infection

3. What are the types of diabetes mellitus?

a. Diabetes type 1

In this type of diabetes mellitus, there is a deficiency or impaired secretion of insulin from the pancreas.  This may be autoimmune in nature. In which type of diabetes there is the development of autoantibody against islet cells of the pancreas.  This type of diabetes mainly occurs in children younger than 20 years of age sometimes these patients present with ketoacidosis. In this type of diabetes,  insulin injection to be taken by patient on a daily basis.

b. Diabetes type 2

This is the most common type of diabetes. 8290 per cent cases of diabetes type 2 Diabetes mellitus.  There is a deficiency of insulin or body cells become resistant to insulin. So, it does not metabolise Carbohydrate properly and there is an increase in blood glucose level.  This type of diabetes mellitus occurs at a later stage of life. most of the patients are asymptomatic. This type of diabetes is strongly associated with obesity.

c. Geastational diabetes

In this type of diabetes mellitus, there is an increase in blood sugar level during pregnancy.  These patients are non-diabetic or pre-diabetic before pregnancy. Gestational diabetes is a risk factor for developing type 2 Diabetes mellitus later.  In most cases, blood glucose level becomes normal after completion of pregnancy.

4. Risk factors of diabetes mellitus

  1. Family history
  2. Obesity
  3. Inactivity
  4. Hypertension
  5. Others

5. Diagnosis of diabetes mellitus

Blood sugar level-

We can check a fasting blood glucose level or Postprandial blood glucose level.

The diagnosis of diabetes is based on the presence of blood glucose concentrations equal to or greater than 126 mg per 100 ml (7.0 mmol per litre) after an overnight fast or on the presence of blood glucose concentrations greater than 200 mg per 100 ml (11.1 mmol per litre) in general. People with fasting blood glucose values between 100 and 125 mg per 100 ml (6.1 to 6.9 mmol per litre) are diagnosed with a condition called Impaired fasting glucose (Prediabetes).

HbA1C-

This test tells about the mean blood glucose level in the last 120 days. It is >6.5% then it is DM.

6. Prevention of Diabetes Mellitus

Exercise-

We should always do 45 -60 minutes of a brisk walk at least 4 to 5 days a week. And we can do yoga and some other physical activity accordingly.

Diabetic Diet-

The role of diet is very well established in the prevention of diabetes and the treatment of diabetes every patient of diabetes those are on medicine or injectable insulin should control their diet.  We should follow a healthy balanced diet plan with the correct knowledge of calories. We should take calories according to our weight age activities or sex.

7. Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus

  1. Exercise or physical activity
  2. Diet- Diabetic Diet (Indian diet chart for a diabetic patient is available)
  3. Oral hypoglycemic drugs
  4. Insulin

8. Complications of diabetes

More duration of diabetes or poor control of diabetes may lead to increase complication in Diabetic patients.

  1. The most common complications are vascular complications, which may involve large arteries, small arteries, or capillaries. The large-vessel disease generally presents as an atherosclerotic vascular disease- Atherosclerosis Which can lead to
  • Nonfatal and fatal myocardial infarction (heart attack)
  • Stroke
  • Ulceration and gangrene of the feet
  • Diabetic Retinopathy Which can lead to blindness
  • Diabetic Nephropathy can lead to kidney failure. (CKD)

     2. Neuropathies

  1. Diabetic Neuropathy- Numbness and tingling sensation in palms and soles, Treatment of massage.
  2. Autonomic Neuropathy Which can lead to gastric retention, erectile dysfunction, hypotension And urinary bladder dysfunction.

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